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The Health Care Group’s newest partners, William S.W. Chang and Laura M. Kidd Cordova, along with Counsel Stephanie D. Willis, have authored an Alert about the 21st Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Program (HCFAC) annual report released last Friday.  The HCFAC report is a joint effort of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that describes the expenditures, results, and enforcement actions of the previous fiscal year.  The authors note that compared to FY 2016, other than expanded efforts to combat the opioid crisis, enforcement remained more or less consistent with prior trends.  In monetary terms, HCFAC spending slightly increased, while overall monetary recovery and returns on investment in fraud prevention efforts significantly decreased.  Interestingly, however, the proportion of overall recoveries resulting from HHS auditing activities considerably increased.

Read the rest of the Alert’s analysis of the HCFAC report and register for our webinar next Tuesday, April 17th.  During the webinar, listeners will hear Will and Stephanie, who were attorneys employed by DOJ and the HHS Office of the Inspector General (HHS-OIG), respectively, give their insights about the significance of the report for health care companies and the health care industry.

 

The Department of Labor’s proposed rule on association health plans (AHPs), issued in response to an October 12, 2017 Executive Order, has received almost 900 comments, including from several states and the District of Columbia (see, e.g., comments from Alaska, Iowa, Massachusetts, Montana, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin). States emphasized the need for clarity in the rule and affirmation of states’ long-standing authority to regulate insurance including both solvency and consumer protection issues. Iowa, for example, attributed the more than 40-year success of a multiple employer welfare arrangement (MEWA) to both the entity’s interests to serve its members and the Iowa Insurance Division’s authority to ensure that MEWAs are “adequately solvent and following fair trade practices” and argued that continued robust state insurance oversight is critical to successful AHPs.

Last week, the Iowa Senate approved two bills which, if passed by the Iowa House of Representatives, would expand the availability in the state of AHPs, a type of MEWA covered by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). The legislation would allow for Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield to administer an AHP for the Iowa Farm Bureau Federation and could threaten the membership of Medica, the only issuer of coverage through Iowa’s exchange.

Continue Reading States Seek Control over Association Health Plans in Comments on DOL Proposed Rule; Iowa Senate Approves Bill Expanding Availability of Association Health Plans—Potentially to the Detriment of ACA Exchange Plans

On December 5, 2016, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit issued an order to stay  the administration’s appeal of the district court decision in U.S. House of Representatives v. Burwell, a case challenging Cost-Sharing Reduction (“CSR”) payments to health insurance issuers under the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) Section 1402. The district court decision found that the House of Representatives had standing to sue the executive branch, that reimbursements to health insurance issuers for CSR requires an appropriation by Congress, and that the Obama Administration’s reimbursements to issuers of CSR without an annual appropriation was illegal. The D.C. Circuit’s stay order directed the parties to “file motions to govern further proceedings by February 21, 2017”—one month after President-elect Donald Trump’s inauguration.

Impact of the Stay Order

In effect, the D.C. Circuit’s order provides additional time for the president-elect to consider whether to withdraw the administration’s appeal and what will happen if it does so. If the Trump Administration withdraws the appeal, the district court’s holding will stand, cutting off CSR payments to health insurance issuers absent an appropriation by Congress. The stay order also provides time for the new administration and Congress to enact policy changes that would moot the case, either by repealing the applicable provisions or by appropriating funds for CSR payments.

It is not yet clear whether the Trump Administration will drop the appeal. On its face, the House Republicans’ challenge to CSR payments was an attack against the ACA. It eliminates certain payments to issuers of health insurance plans on ACA Exchanges unless Congress specifically appropriates funds for those payments (which it has not), making it impracticable to offer such plans and thereby hindering the viability of the exchanges. President-elect Trump has promised to repeal the ACA, which suggests that the district court’s decision prohibiting CSR payment absent an appropriation is consistent with his overall policy objectives. But, the decision found that a chamber of Congress has standing to raise a legal challenge in federal court against the exercise of executive power—a potentially unwelcome precedent for the Trump administration to leave unchallenged.

If the Trump administration does not withdraw the appeal, it may nevertheless become moot as the result of legislative changes. Specifically, Congress could appropriate amounts for CSR payments to maintain the status quo until the ACA is repealed or Congress could repeal those provisions of the ACA authorizing payment of CSRs. The absence of CSR payments would likely force issuers to leave exchange markets, causing losses of coverage and fewer options for individuals. Despite promises to immediately repeal the ACA, the political consequences of many individuals’ losses of coverage before replacement is enacted may be untenable.

The district court stayed its decision pending appeal, and issuers have continued to receive CSR payments to compensate for the reduction or elimination of enrollee cost-sharing amounts as required by the ACA. For the immediate future, the stay of the district court’s opinion permits continued reimbursements to issuers for CSR. The Trump Administration, however, could opt to discontinue making those payments even while the stay is in place by declining to make payments in the absence of an appropriation. If the administration drops the appeal without repealing ACA Section 1402, issuers would remain obligated to provide CSRs to enrollees, but they would not be reimbursed for the costs of those CSRs as required by the statute.

Options for Issuers

In the event that the Trump administration drops the appeal or otherwise leaves issuers with an uncompensated-for obligation to continue CSRs for enrollees, issuers may have several options.

First, issuers may file suit in the Court of Federal Claims under the Tucker Act to be made whole for any CSR payments to enrollees for which the government failed to make timely payment. The CSR statute obligates the federal government to make payments to issuers, and the absence of an appropriation to make such payments does not preclude a claim for payment under the Tucker Act. The Obama Administration acknowledged as much in its briefing before the district court.

Second, issuers may seek to terminate their qualified health plan (QHP) issuer agreements. To offer QHPs on federally facilitated and federal-state partnership exchange, issuers signed QHP issuer agreements that contain a provision allowing the issuer “to terminate this Agreement subject to applicable state and federal law.” Note, however, that termination of the issuer agreement would not affect state law obligations, such as requirements to continue coverage for enrollees for a full policy period. Even if the QHP issuer agreement is terminated, careful analysis would be necessary to determine whether and how a plan may be terminated or discontinued.

Finally, issuers may seek legislative or regulatory relief from the CSR provisions. The president-elect has repeatedly promised to repeal the ACA, but it is possible that an intermediate solution may be reached that achieves the dismantling of the Act without leaving health insurance issuers that participated in Exchanges with significant financial obligations for which they cannot be reimbursed.

On November 2, President Obama signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015. As an offset for near-term increases in federal spending, the new law extends by one year – to 2025 – two-percent sequestration reductions in federal spending for mandatory federal programs including Medicare.  The end result is that Medicare Advantage Organizations (MAOs) can expect their capitated payments from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) to continue to be reduced, and Medicare fee-for-service providers can also expect to have sequestration reductions on their CMS reimbursements until at least 2025.

First established by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (BBEDCA), “sequestration” is a process of automatic, largely across-the-board reductions enacted to constrain federal spending. Sequestration in its current form began on March 1, 2013, when President Obama, pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011, ordered cuts to federal spending effective April 1, 2013, after Congress and the President failed to reach a budget compromise.

Under the Budget Control Act of 2011, the size of reductions to the Medicare program is limited to two-percent. As required by President Obama’s sequestration executive order, on March 8, 2013, CMS notified providers that a “2 percent reduction in Medicare payment[s]” would apply to “Medicare FFS claims with dates-of-service or dates-of-discharge on or after April 1, 2013.” In other words, due to sequestration, as of April 1, 2013, CMS reduced the amount it pays to providers for fee-for-service Medicare claims by two-percent.

Continue Reading Sequestration Extended to 2025 in Federal Budget Deal